What is Irrigation?

Water is most significant part for the grown of plants. Different Kinds of plants need totally different quantities of water at different times throughout their growing time. Water is supplied to the plants through direct rain or flood waters of the rivers which inundate large land areas during floods.. As these are natural processes, there could also be significant rain and damaging the crops or making a inadequacy of supply water for the crops. thus a man-made methodology is required by that water will be collected and keep in order that it will be used once necessary. This methodology of science is termed as “irrigation”. The area unit varied varieties of irrigation strategies. Irrigation system definition, irrigation history, irrigation programming approaches, irrigation examples area unit concisely delineate below.


History of Irrigation

Agriculture is the oldest way to serve food to the human. Ancient individuals from totally different regions used the irrigation system to provide water to their agricultural lands. At that point irrigation was principally the management of water flow. Mesopotamia and Egypt were the foremost winning user of the irrigation system. a quick description of the history of irrigation is explicit below.

Irrigation is one among the foremost vital helpful things in man. There are a lot of methods for irrigation but the main point of this is to give water to the plant effectively and efficiently. Our earth and everything thereon relies on several things and one among those things includes the plant. Plant respires by giving atomic number 8 and taking in carbonic acid gas, thus the atomic number 8 it releases area unit inhaled by all living organism like animals, humans, or something that depends on water. We want irrigation strategies for agriculture because the rain are some things that’s obsessed with the season like within the climatic zone.

Types of Irrigation Methods

Surface Irrigation

Water is scattered equally throughout the land with the help of gravitate pull and it doesn’t need a machine to care of it. This consists of a huge quantity of irrigation ways which the water is scattered, the items you require to own before you introduce the irrigation water to the basins area unit by siphons, gated pipe. This method is best suited to areas that have a parallel slope or flat surface and a moderate fine-textured soil sort. This helps the surface to own water unfold through it equally because it moves down across the basin. There area unit 3 varieties of surface irrigation:

  • Basin irrigation
  • Furrow irrigation
  • Flood irrigation
  • Bay/border strip irrigation
  • Localized Irrigation

Water is scattered throughout the land beneath low. A piped network that passes throughout the soil is employed for water distribution in order that all the plant gets water effectively.

Drip Irrigation

In this method of drip irrigation, the water drops fall on the basis of each plant that’s round the system. The plants absorb the born water victimisation their roots. During this method, the evaporation and runoff is decreased therefore we will guarantee less water loss.

Sprinkler Irrigation

Water is scattered throughout the land by over pressure sprinklers or guns from the equator of the land or from a moving platform that might be wet because it moves.

Centre Pivot Irrigation

Water is scattered throughout the land by a machine of sprinklers that move wheeled towers in 360 degrees pattern or a circle that might move round the land and sprinkle water everywhere the soil and it’s extremely economical and effective and this procedure or system is well suggested in the large countries however largely used in the USA.

Lateral Move Irrigation

Water is scattered throughout the land equally through a series of pipes or water lines, they may either be controlled by hands that might be less effective compared to a artificial machine for sprinkling water around the land. The sprinkles move merely a suggested distance on the sphere and for another land, the Reconnection of the water hose is needed to hide the another distance. Compared to the other irrigation systems, lateral move irrigation system tends to be approach cheaper however needs more of labor or workforce.


In this method, the surrounding water level is raised to scatter water equally across the land. types like pumping stations, canals, gates, ditches, and some alternative systems used to accustomed raise the water level. This technique is one among the most effective for scattering water throughout the areas with a high water level.

Manual Irrigation

Water is scattered across equally round the field with the help of manual power like labours and watering cans. this method is incredibly labor targeted.

Each of those ways is helpful in its own specific manner and it depends on however you’re victimisation it and what you’re victimisation it on. The lade matters as typically the simplest irrigation system may appear to own flaws in it. check that you establish the soil you’re victimisation and check whether or not you have got a decent provide reservoir full of water around you which of them would create it easier for you to require care of your plants.

An irrigation pivot watering a field of turnips.

Advantages of irrigation systems.

  • It helps to maintain the condensation of the loam.
  • It provides mineral as well as other nutrition by the assimilation from the meld.
  • It is one of the most feasible ways to grow cash crops like sugarcane, tobacco, etc.
  • As people are dependent on irrigation channels, there is now an extensive irrigation system which people are using as a mean of their communication
  • It helps to preserve the structure of the topsoil
  • By eliminating the deficiency of water, Irrigation manages to give fast manufacturing
  • The more production rate intensifies, the more living standard of the farmer increases
    Canal and irrigation water seeps through the soil and elevates the water table.
  • At many places, the irrigation serves as the only water source.
  • Irrigation helps to make the cash flow of a country profound with the massive production of crops
  • It helps the landowners by the monetary increment of fertile lands
  • People in rural areas use irrigated water for household chores like- dishwashing, bathing.
  • It helps to improve the yielding.
  • The irrigation waterways can be utilised to produce hydroelectric power
  • As people are more prone to irrigation now, colossal irrigation channel construction is assisting the people to be employed known as relief workers.
  • It helps to prevent the disease of weeds
  • It acts as a shield against famine
  • Prolonged irrigation is used for navigational impetus sometimes
  • The banks of the irrigation channels can be wielded to prevent deforestation and improve contexture status.

Disadvantages of Irrigation

  • It sometimes creates unrestrained excretion and percolation of water throughout the whole passage.
  • The overflowing irrigated water gives insects a place to make their habitat which is harmful to surroundings giving rise to various diseases.
  • As irrigated water helps to lessen the inversion, sometimes it turns the area into a wet and sweaty surface. Immoderate irrigation clogs specific area by raising the water.
  • While constructing the colossal irrigation waterways, people lose their residential and commercial lands.
  • Not every time irrigation is affordable.
  • Irrigation becomes an obstacle in the path of free devours during the rainy season.
  • Careless and over-irrigation can lead to salt efflorescence.

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